Intravenous literature: Baer, D.M. (2011) Drawing from intraosseous vascular access. Medical Laboratory Observer. 43(1), p.25.
“The bone-marrow cavity contains a rich vascular supply. Aspiration from the cavity yields a sample that contains blood, bone-marrow cells, andfat. Several papers have studied whether 10 obtained samples can be used for laboratory analysis. Each of the studies examined 10 specimens compared with specimens from venipunctures. One study was performed on healthy dogs, while the others were done on children receiving bone-marrow exams and who were not in shock or cardiac arrest. Not all of the studies were in agreement about the usefulness of 10 specimens for some analyses, nor did all of the studies compare the same tests.
Valid results were reported for the following analytes: sodium, chloride CO2 or bicarbonate. pH, urea, creatinine, albumin, calcium, phosphate, uric acid, total bilirubin, hemoglobin.”