Intravenous literature: Doellman, D., Hadaway, L., Bowe-Geddes, L.A., Franklin, M., LeDonne, J., Papke-O’Donnell, L., Pettit, J., Schulmeister, L. and Stranz, M. (2009) Infiltration and extravasation: update on prevention and management. Journal of Infusion Nursing. 32(4), p.203-11.
Infiltration and extravasation are risks of intravenous administration therapy involving unintended leakage of solution into the surrounding tissue. Consequences range from local irritation to amputation. While immediate action using appropriate measures (ie, dilution, extraction, antidotes, and supportive treatments) can decrease the need for surgical intervention, many injuries may be prevented by following established policy and procedures. However, timely surgical intervention, when necessary, can prevent more serious adverse outcomes. Clinicians should be prepared to act promptly when an event occurs. Thorough incident documentation helps determine whether infusion care meets the standard of practice and is a keystone to medicolegal defense.