Infections increase the risk of central venous catheter-related thrombosis

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#IVTEAM #Intravenous literature: Del Principe, M.I., Buccisano, F., Maurillo, L., Venditti, D., Cefalo, M., Sarlo, C., Di Caprio, L., Di Veroli, A., Nasso, D., Ceresoli, E., Postorino, M., Di Piazza, F., Colandrea, G., Conti, F., Del Poeta, G., Amadori, S. and Venditti, A. (2013) Infections increase the risk of central venous catheter-related thrombosis in adult acute myeloid leukemia. Thrombosis Research. August 16th. [epub ahead of print].

Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Central venous catheters (CVC) related thrombosis (CRT) represents a well known complication in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) receiving intensive chemotherapy but the efficacy of antithrombotic prophylaxis still remains controversial.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed 71 consecutive AML patients whose CVC was inserted before each chemotherapy cycle for an overall number of 106 CVC placements. In 47/106 insertions, a prophylaxis with 100IU/kg/day low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) was administered for 7days after CVC insertion and additional 7 after CVC removal. This unconventional dose of LMWH, although higher than usual, appeared adequate for a short-course approach. LMWH was delivered regardless of the platelet (PLT) count once provided that it should have been maintained above 20×109/L by transfusions.

RESULTS: Of 106 insertions, we observed 19 (18%) episodes of CRT, 58 (54%) of sepsis and 50 (47%) infections of CVC-exit site with no difference between LMWH and no-LMWH group. Occurrence of CRT was significantly associated with CVC-exit site infections (14/19, p=0.01) and sepsis (16/19, p=0.005) with no difference between LMWH and no-LMWH group. In multivariate analysis, both CVC-exit site infections and sepsis were confirmed to be independent risk factors for CRT development.

CONCLUSION: Our retrospective study, although based on a small sample size, suggests that the occurrence of CVC-exit site infections and neutropenic sepsis following chemotherapy significantly increases the risk of CRT in AML, independently from the use of LMWH prophylaxis.

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