Infection control surveillance methods

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Rosenthal, V.D., Maki, D.G. and Graves, N. (2008) The International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC): goals and objectives, description of surveillance methods, and operational activities. American Journal of Infection Control. 36(9), 36(9)(e1-12).

Abstract:

We have shown that intensive care units (ICUs) in countries with limited resources have rates of device-associated health care-associated infection (HAI), including central line–related bloodstream infection (CLAB), ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), and catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI), 3 to 5 times higher than rates reported from North American, Western European, and Australian ICUs. The International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) is an international ongoing collaborative HAI control program with a surveillance system based on that of the US National Healthcare Safety Network. The INICC was founded 10 years ago to promote evidence-based infection control in hospitals in limited-resource countries and in hospitals of developed countries without sufficient experience in HAI surveillance and control, through the analysis and feedback of surveillance data collected voluntarily by the member hospitals. It developed from a handful of South American hospitals in 1998 to a dynamic network of 98 ICUs in 18 countries, and is the only source of aggregate standardized international data on HAI epidemiology. Herein we report the criteria and mechanisms for gaining membership in INICC; the training of personnel in INICC hospitals; the INICC protocol for outcome surveillance of CLABs, VAPs, and CAUTIs in ICUs, microorganism profiles, bacterial resistance, antibiotic use, extra length of stay, extra costs, extra mortality, and risk factor analysis, and for process surveillance, including compliance rates for hand hygiene, vascular catheter care, urinary catheter care, and measures for prevention of VAP; and the use of surveillance data feedback as a powerful weapon for control of HAIs. The INICC will continue to evolve in its quest to find more effective and efficient ways to assess patient risk and improve patient safety in hospitals.

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