Intravenous literature: Amerasekera, S.S., Jones, C.M., Patel, R. and Cleasby, M.J. (2009) Imaging of the complications of peripherally inserted central venous catheters. Clinical Radiology. 64(8), p.832-40.
Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) are widely used to provide central venous access, often in chronically ill patients with long-term intravenous access requirements. There are a number of significant complications related to both insertion and maintenance of PICC lines, including catheter malposition, migration, venous thrombosis, and line fracture. The incidence of these complications is likely to rise as the number of patients undergoing intravenous outpatient therapy increases, with a corresponding rise in radiologist input. This paper provides an overview of the relevant peripheral and central venous anatomy, including anatomical variations, and outlines the complications of PICC lines. Imaging examples demonstrate the range of radiological findings seen in these complications.
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