How much blood should be wasted from a intravenous (IV) catheter before obtaining a blood sample?

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Intravenous literature: Baker, R.B., Summer, S.S., Lawrence, M., Shova, A., McGraw, C.A. and Khoury, J. (2013) Determining Optimal Waste Volume From an Intravenous Catheter. Journal of Infusion Nursing. 36(2), p.92–96.

Abstract:

Waste is blood drawn from an intravenous (IV) catheter to remove saline or heparin before obtaining a blood sample. This study examines the minimum waste volume resulting in an undiluted sample. A repeated-measures design was used. Investigators placed an IV catheter in 60 healthy adults and obtained samples at baseline and following waste volumes ranging from 0.5 to 3 mL. A random effects mixed model was used to determine the stabilizing point, which was 1 mL of waste. Knowing that only 1 mL of waste is needed will prevent clinicians from obtaining extra waste and discarding blood needlessly.

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