Intravenous literature: Polkinghorne, K.R., Chin, G.K., Macginley, R.J., Owen, A.R., Russell, C., Talaulikar, G.S., Vale, E. and Lopez-Vargas, P.A. (2013) KHA-CARI guideline: Vascular access – central venous catheters, arteriovenous fistulae and arteriovenous grafts. Nephrology. July 16th. .
Part I: Placement of permanent vascular access: selection of appropriate access type, pre-operative examination of the vessels, preparation and placement of vascular access, and nursing care of the arteriovenous fistula and graft. Patients with chronic kidney disease need to consider which treatment modality they will have once their disease has progressed to end-stage kidney disease requiring renal replacement therapy. For patients who consider haemodialysis as an option, the decision needs to be made in a timely manner so that adequate vascular access is achieved before starting dialysis.