Extravasation of cytotoxic agents in an outpatient chemotherapy clinic

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#IVTEAM #Intravenous literature: Sakaida, E., Sekine, I., Iwasawa, S., Kurimoto, R., Uehara, T., Ooka, Y., Akanuma, N., Tada, Y., Imai, C., Oku, T. and Takiguchi, Y. (2013) Incidence, Risk Factors and Treatment Outcomes of Extravasation of Cytotoxic Agents in an Outpatient Chemotherapy Clinic. Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology. December 2nd. [epub ahead of print].

Abstract:

OBJECTIVE: Extravasation, the accidental leakage of an anticancer agent from a vessel into the surrounding tissues, can lead to irreversible local injuries and severe disability. Despite its considerable clinical importance, evidence-based information on extravasation in chemotherapy is lacking. This study characterized the clinical features of extravasation and identified issues to be resolved in current cancer chemotherapy performed in outpatient settings.

METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical charts of patients who received chemotherapy and sustained extravasation in our Outpatient Chemotherapy Clinic from April 2007 to August 2012. Chemotherapy administration and extravasation management procedures were standardized using the in-house chemotherapy guideline.

RESULTS: Among 43 557 patients who received chemotherapy, 35 (0.08%) experienced extravasation. The duration between the start of infusion and extravasation was >2 h in 28 (80.0%) patients. The severity of extravasation was Grades 1, 2 and 3 in 28, 2 and 5 patients, respectively-three of whom were associated with port trouble. The contributing factor for extravasation was walking in 11 (31.4%) patients. All extravasations were cured without surgical intervention by management according to our guidelines.

CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of extravasation is as low as 0.08%, using our in-house chemotherapy guideline. Extravasation from implanted ports tends to be severe.

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