Intravenous literature: Clark, E., Giambra, B.K., Hingl, J., Doellman, D., Tofani, B. and Johnson, N. (2013) Reducing Risk of Harm From Extravasation: A 3-Tiered Evidence-Based List of Pediatric Peripheral Intravenous Infusates. Journal of Infusion Nursing. 36(1), p.37-45.
Extravasation of medications during peripheral intravenous (PIV) therapy can result in harm to pediatric patients. These medications have physical and/or biologic factors that cause tissue damage. To assist in clinical decisions when using these infusates, an evidence-based table of medications stratified by their relative risk of causing harm if extravasated was developed. Local data and experience, a systematic review of the pediatric literature, and measured pH and osmolality of common pediatric preparations of PIV infusates were used to create a 3-tiered table of PIV infusates categorized by relative risk of causing harm if extravasated.