Epidemiology of central venous catheter-related bloodstream infections in an intensive care unit

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Intravenous literature: Peng, S. and Lu, Y. (2012) Clinical epidemiology of central venous catheter-related bloodstream infections in an intensive care unit in China. Journal of Critical Care. Dec 19. [Epub ahead of print].

Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Central venous catheters (CVCs) are universally used during the treatment of critically ill patients. Their use, however, is associated with a substantial infection risk. At present, there are few studies on catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) that are comparable with international similar research. The aim of this study was to determine the rate, risk factors, and outcomes of CRBSIs in patients of an intensive care unit (ICU) in China.

METHODS: A prospective study was performed in the Affiliated Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University. All patients admitted to the ICU from June 2007 to May 2008 who had a central line placed were monitored for the development of BSI from insertion until 48 hours after removal. One hundred seventy-four patients with 178 admissions to the ICU, 219 CVCs and 1913 CVC days, 21 episodes of CRBSI in 21 patients were enrolled.

RESULTS: The mean rate of CRBSI was 11.0 per 1000 CVC days with a catheter utilization rate of 72.8%. Analyses of the pathogens showed that gram-negative organisms were predominant. The univariate analysis showed that 3 things seemed to directly impact the occurrences of CRBSI. These were the number of lines insertion, the applications of antibiotics before CRBSI, and the duration of catheter. In a multiple logistic regression analysis of the risk factors, patients with multiple central lines (odds ratio = 5.981; 95% confidence intervals, 1.660-21.547; P = .006) and with the applications of multiple antibiotics before CRBSI (odds ratio = 6.335; 95% confidence interval, 2.001-20.054; P = .002) were more likely to develop CRBSI.

CONCLUSIONS: The CRBSI rate in our ICU is higher compared with that reported by the National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance and was associated with the applications of antibiotics before CRBSI and with the number of placed CVCs. Catheter-related bloodstream infections may be associated with a higher mortality rate and a higher incidence of ventilator-associated pulmonitis, which might lead to an increase in the total costs and medicine expenditures.

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