Contamination of intravenous fluids

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Safety IV catheter

Intravenous literature: Macias, A.E., Huertas, M., Ponce de Leon, S., Munoz, J.M., Chavez, A.R., Sifuentes-Osornio, J., Romero, C. and Bobadilla, M. (2009) Contamination of intravenous fluids: A continuing cause of hospital bacteremia. American Journal of Infection Control. Dec 21.

Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Nosocomial bacteremia caused by the contamination of intravenous (IV) infusates is considered rare. Unfortunately, this problem has been underestimated because its identification requires culturing infusates, a procedure not performed routinely.

METHODS: This study was conducted in a referral hospital where IV infusates are admixed in nursing areas. The aim was to determine the prevalence of infusate contamination in adult patients with gram-negative rod (GNR) bacteremia. Over a period of 32 months, a specimen of infusate was drawn for culture from each patient recruited after the laboratory reported a GNR in the blood.

RESULTS: A total of 384 infusates were cultured from 384 patients who had been diagnosed with GNR bacteremia. Seven infusates grew a GNR in culture, for a contamination rate of 2% (7/384; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1% to 3%). In all cases, the infectious organism was the same as the organism isolated from the blood. Infusate contamination was responsible for 7% (7/108; 95% CI = 2% to 11%) of all primary bloodstream infections and 11% (7/62; 95% CI = 2% to 22%) of all primary bloodstream infections not associated with central venous catheter infection.

CONCLUSIONS: For patients in hospitals where IV drugs are admixed in nursing units, we recommend instituting infusate culture as routine practice following the diagnosis of a GNR in the blood.


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