Complications associated with neonatal peripherally inserted central catheters

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#IVTEAM #Intravenous literature: “The use of the axillary vein as a site of insertion of a PICC line was correlated with significantly less complications in premature newborns as opposed to the other sites of insertion.”

Reference:

Panagiotounakou, P., Antonogeorgos, G., Gounari, E., Papadakis, S., Labadaridis, J. and Gounaris, A.K. (2014) Peripherally inserted central venous catheters: frequency of complications in premature newborn depends on the insertion site. Journal of Perinatology. March 13th. [epub ahead of print].

Abstract:

Objective: The use of peripherally inserted central venous catheters (PICC lines) has reduced the mortality and morbidity of premature newborns. The usual sites of insertion are the veins in the upper arms but other locations are being used as well.

Study Design: To examine whether using the axillary vein as a site of insertion of a PICC line affects the frequency of complications. Our study has a clinical trial design. A total of 62 neonates that had a PICC line inserted were recruited and randomly divided equally in two groups: in Group A (mean birth weight, standard deviation (s.d.)=1353 (142) g), the PICC line was inserted through the axillary vein, and in Group B (birth weight=1308 (112) g), the PICC line was inserted in other sites further from the axillary vein. The outcomes measured were the total PICC line-related complications, the reason for removing the catheter, the number of total attempts until successful insertion and the mean duration of stay of the catheter. The likelihood of having an adverse outcome was assessed with Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio (OR).

Results: Premature neonates with axillary PICC lines were 12 times less likely to have line-related complications (inflammation, blockage, edema, infection) as compared with any other site of insertion (OR= 95%, confidence interval (CI)=0.10 (0.01 to 0.8)) and they were seven times more likely to have the PICC line removed because they achieved full enteral nutrition as compared with the other causes (OR 95%, confidence interval (CI)=10.35 (4.88 to 21.96)). There was no statistical difference between the two groups in the number of attempts until successful PICC line insertion (P=0.667) and the mean duration of stay of the PICC line (P=0.97).

Conclusion: The use of the axillary vein as a site of insertion of a PICC line was correlated with significantly less complications in premature newborns as opposed to the other sites of insertion.

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