Intravenous literature: Advani, S., Reich, N.G., Sengupta, A., Gosey, L. and Milstone, A.M. (2011) Central line-associated bloodstream infection in hospitalized children with peripherally inserted central venous catheters: extending risk analyses outside the intensive care unit. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 52(9), p.1108-1115.
BACKGROUND: Increasingly, peripherally inserted central venous catheters (PICCs) are placed for prolonged intravenous access. Few data exist regarding risk factors for central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) complicating PICCs in hospitalized children, especially children hospitalized outside the intensive care unit (ICU).
METHODS: We identified all children with a PICC inserted at The Johns Hopkins Hospital (Baltimore, MD) from 1 January 2003 through 31 December 2009 and used Poisson regression models to identify risk factors for PICC-associated CLABSIs.
RESULTS: A total of 2592 PICCs were placed in 1819 children. One hundred sixteen CLABSIs occurred over 44,972 catheter-days (incidence rate [IR], 2.58 cases per 1000 catheter-days; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.07-3.00 cases per 1000 catheter-days). Independent predictors of CLABSI in the entire cohort included PICC dwell time of > 21 days (IR ratio [IRR], 1.53; 95% CI, 1.05-2.26), parenteral nutrition as indication for insertion (IRR, 2.24; 95% CI, 1.31-3.84), prior PICC-associated CLABSI (IRR, 2.48; 95% CI, 1.18-5.25), underlying metabolic condition (IRR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.14-3.74), and pediatric ICU exposure during hospitalization (IRR, 1.80; 95% CI, 1.18-2.75). Risk factors for CLABSI in children without PICU exposure included younger age, underlying malignancy and metabolic conditions, PICCs inserted in the lower extremity, and a prior PICC-associated CLABSI.
CONCLUSIONS: Prolonged catheter dwell time, pediatric ICU exposure, and administration of parenteral nutrition as the indication for PICC insertion are important predictors of PICC-associated CLABSI in hospitalized children. A careful assessment of these risk factors may be important for future success in preventing CLABSIs in hospitalized children with PICCs.