CLABSI prevention following the implementation of standardized evidence-based strategies

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#IVTEAM #Intravenous literature: “PN-associated BSI in hospital inpatients is common and is associated with mortality. The implementation of standardized evidence-based infection prevention strategies, particularly targeting IVD maintenance, is a priority.” Townell et al (2014).

Reference:

Townell, N., McDougall, D. and Playford, E.G. (2014) Parenteral nutrition-associated bloodstream infection in an Australian teaching hospital-An 8-year retrospective study of over 11,000 PN-days. Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases. March 3rd. [epub ahead of print].

Abstract:

Background: Bloodstream infections (BSIs) are a well-recognized complication of parenteral nutrition (PN). However, their epidemiology and clinical consequences are incompletely described.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed, from 2002 to 2009, of all hospital inpatients who were administered PN, outside the intensive care setting, at a major tertiary hospital in Queensland, Australia.

Results: In 780 episodes of PN administration, 120 BSIs occurred, giving an incidence of 10.0/1000 PN-days. The majority of PN-associated BSIs were classified as central line-associated (n = 98, 81.7%). Candida spp. were the most frequent pathogens. Observed BSI management revealed that over 8% of intravascular devices were inappropriately retained, over 30% of empirical antibiotic therapy was inappropriate, and 62% of antifungal therapy was delayed ≥ 48 h. All-cause hospital mortality was over 2-fold greater in patients with a PN-associated BSI compared to those without (17.9% vs 8.3%, crude odds ratio (OR) 2.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.29-4.35, p = 0.002). BSI was identified as an independent risk factor for mortality (adjusted OR 3.54, 95% CI 1.76-7.12, p < 0.001). Low baseline albumin levels and a requirement for intravenous insulin infusion (a marker of sustained hyperglycaemia) were independent risk factors for the development of PN-associated BSIs.

Conclusions: PN-associated BSI in hospital inpatients is common and is associated with mortality. The implementation of standardized evidence-based infection prevention strategies, particularly targeting IVD maintenance, is a priority. PN-associated BSI management pathways require optimization, with timely IVD removal and appropriate antimicrobial therapy. Depending on local epidemiology patterns, empirical antifungal therapy should be considered.

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