Intravenous literature: Tabah, A. et al (2012) Characteristics and determinants of outcome of hospital-acquired bloodstream infections in intensive care units: the EUROBACT International Cohort Study. Intensive Care Medicine. October .
Purpose -Â The recent increase in drug-resistant micro-organisms complicates the management of hospital-acquired bloodstream infections (HA-BSIs). We investigated the epidemiology of HA-BSI and evaluated the impact of drug resistance on outcomes of critically ill patients, controlling for patient characteristics and infection management.
Methods -Â A prospective, multicentre non-representative cohort study was conducted in 162 intensive care units (ICUs) in 24 countries.
Results -Â We included 1,156 patients with HA-BSIs, of which 76 % were ICU-acquired. Median time to diagnosis was 14 days after hospital admission. Polymicrobial infections accounted for 12 % of cases. Among monomicrobial infections, 58.3 % were gram-negative, 32.8 % gram-positive, 7.8 % fungal and 1.2 % due to strict anaerobes. Overall, 629 (47.8 %) isolates were multidrug-resistant (MDR), including 270 (20.5 %) extensively resistant (XDR), and 5 (0.4 %) pan-drug-resistant (PDR). Micro-organism distribution and MDR occurrence varied significantly (p < 0.001) by country. The 28-day all-cause fatality rate was 36 %. In the multivariable model including micro-organism, patient and centre variables, independent predictors of 28-day mortality included MDR isolate , uncontrolled infection source (OR, 5.86; 95 %CI, 2.5â€“13.9) and timing to adequate treatment (before day 6 since blood culture collection versus never, OR, 0.38; 95 %CI, 0.23â€“0.63; since day 6 versus never, OR, 0.20; 95 %CI, 0.08â€“0.47).
Conclusions -Â MDR and XDR bacteria (especially gram-negative) are common in HA-BSIs in critically ill patients and are associated with increased 28-day mortality. Intensified efforts to prevent HA-BSIs and to optimize their management through adequate source control and antibiotic therapy are needed to improve outcomes.