Catheter related blood stream infections in the paediatric intensive care unit

Safety IV catheter

#IVTEAM #Intravenous literature: Thomas, D., Parameswaran, N. and Harish, B.N. (2013) Catheter related blood stream infections in the paediatric intensive care unit: A descriptive study. Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine. 17(3), p.135-139.


CONTEXT: Catheter related blood stream infections (CRBSI) contributes significantly to morbidity, mortality and costs in intensive care unit (ICU). The patient profile, infrastructure and resources in ICU are different in the developing world as compared to western countries. Studies regarding CRBSI from pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) are scanty in the Indian literature.

AIMS: To determine the frequency and risk factors of CRBSI in children admitted to PICU.

SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Descriptive study done in the PICU of a tertiary care teaching hospital over a period of four months.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Study children were followed up from the time of catheterization till discharge. Their clinical and treatment details were recorded and blood culture was done every 72 h, starting at 48 h after catheterization. The adherence of doctors to Centre for Disease Control (CDC) guidelines for catheter insertion was assessed using a checklist.

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Clinical parameters were compared between colonized and non-colonized subjects and between patients with and without CRBSI. Unpaired t-test and Chi-square test were used to test the significance of observed differences.

RESULTS: Out of the 41 children, 21 developed colonization of their central venous catheter (66.24/1000 catheter days), and two developed CRBSI (6.3/1000 catheter days). Infants had a higher risk for developing colonization (P = 0.01). There was 85% adherence to CDC guidelines for catheter insertion.

CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of CRBSI and catheter colonization is high in our in spite of good catheter insertion practices. Hence further studies to establish the role of adherence to catheter maintenance practices in reducing risk of CRBSI is required. The role of a composite package of interventions including insertion and maintenance bundles specifically targeting infants needs to be studied to bring down the catheter colonization as well as CRBSI rates.

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