Intravenous literature: Michitsugu Shimatani, Yasuko Matsui, Kunio Yano (2011) Comparison of the Needlstick Injuries Due to Active and Passive Design Safety Intravenous Catheters. AJIC: American Journal of Infection Control. 39(5), p.E79.
Needlestick injuries, especially due to contaminated intravenous (IV) catheters, expose healthcare workers (HCWs) to bloodborne pathogens, including human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus. There are two categories of safety engineered needle devices: active and passive design. Active design requires HCW to activate the safety mechanism. On the other hand, passive design features the safety mechanism that happens automatically during use.